Terms and Definitions

Common Assessments
Common assessments are collaboratively created assessments to measure student understanding and provide collective feedback.  Common assessments could be either formative or summative. 
Competencies are designed as broad, overarching concepts that encompass multiple learning standards which are interconnected and requires a student to transfer learning in the curriculum.  The competencies describe what a student should know and be able to do.  High School Departmental Programmatic Competencies are competencies written as a school wide collaborative activity to reflect the competencies that students engage in as they progress through our course of studies.  These are directly connected to our 21st Century Learning Expectations.
Formative Assessments
Formative assessments are used to evaluate student understanding and provide feedback.  Information gathered through formative assessments can help students move forward in their learning and provide teachers with valuable information for instruction.  Formative evaluation allows for “snapshots” of student learning to help them progress in the learning process.   They could include: classwork, activities, learning log, journal entries, homework, and quizzes.  
Habits of Learning
Habits of Learning is a set of work habits and behaviors on which life-long success is built, reported separately from academic progress. 21st Century Learning Expectations are similar to Habits of Work or Work Study Practices and Graduation Outcomes.  These are the foundational expectations that all students will be exposed to and acquire (at different mastery levels) as they progress through their years at ORHS.* *The ORHS Faculty and Administration is currently examining our 21st CLE, Habits of Learning and Graduation Outcomes to create one set of foundational qualities.
Learning Targets
Learning Targets are learning goals that are targeted to a daily lesson and are worded for students.  Learning targets should be sequenced as well as linked to a performance task to allow students to assess their mastery of the target and in-turn standard.    “Every lesson needs its own reason to live.”
Rubrics & Assessments
Rubrics & Assessments are designed as tools to reflect a student’s level of mastery of standards and in turn competencies.  The assessments that a teacher uses along the way measure the extent to which a student has met the competencies. (See Formative Assessment & Summative Assessment) 
Standards are specific measurable phases of student achievement.  Standards are non-negotiable, measurable learning objective that guides instruction.  Standards help guide instruction for competency-based curriculum.  These content specific standards have been developed either at the state or national level.  They are “I can” statements (goals for learning) that are course specific and content driven.  Completion of competencies for each course reflects a student’s ability to master the standards. 
Summative Assessments
Summative assessments are used to measure student mastery of the competencies. Summative assessments are aimed at the extent to which educational goals “have been attained over an entire course or program of study”. Summative assessments are usually cumulative and focus on transferable abilities, often cognitive in nature, which allow students to demonstrate mastery of concepts, skills, and knowledge embedded in competencies and standards.  Summative assessments are typically weighted more heavily than formatives.  They could include: tests, writings (essays), labs, tests, performance tasks, projects, exhibition, etc.